SICUNET Physical Access Controller - Multiple Vulnerabilities ------------------------------------------------------------- Introduction ============ Multiple vulnerabilities were identified in the SICUNET Access Controller Products. The vulnerabilities were discovered during a black box security assessment and therefore the vulnerability list should not be considered exhaustive. Affected Software and Versions ============================== Known vulnerable version is 0.32-05z. This version string was taken from Spider.db. CVE === No CVEs have been assigned. Vulnerability Overview ====================== 0. SN-01: HIGH: Outdated software 1. SN-02: HIGH: PHP include() 2. SN-03: CRITICAL: Unauthenticated remote code execution 3. SN-04: CRITICAL: Hardcoded root credentials 4. SN-05: High: Passwords stored in plaintext Vulnerability Details ===================== ------------------------ SN-01: Outdated software ------------------------ Severity: High A variety of software running on the device is outdated, making exploitation of certain bugs far easier than it would be had they been patched, or running up to date software. /usr/local/php_b2/bin # ./php -v PHP 5.2.14 (cli) (built: Jul 8 2012 22:45:11) Copyright (c) 1997-2010 The PHP Group Zend Engine v2.2.0, Copyright (c) 1998-2010 Zend Technologies http://php.net/eol.php has more information about PHP 5.2 being End Of Life, and associated security issues. /usr/local/lighttpd/sbin # ./arm-linux-lighttpd -v lighttpd/1.4.30 (ssl) - a light and fast webserver Build-Date: Dec 26 2013 15:13:53 https://www.lighttpd.net/download/ has more information about security changes in lighttpd. # uname -a Linux SICUNET 2.6.32.9 #72 PREEMPT Tue Feb 28 15:25:12 KST 2012 armv7l GNU/Linux It is recommended that software is kept up to date, and that configurations are reviewed to ensure that theyare secure. For example, there may have been configuration options for PHP which may have made exploitation harder. -------------------- SN-02: PHP include() -------------------- Severity: High When sending a request to /, the 'c' parameter is used as part of an include() statement. Excerpt from /spider/web/webroot/index.php: $class = Input::get('c', 'layout'); $method = Input::get('m', 'index'); include APP_DIR.'/controllers/'.$class.EXT; (where EXT is defined as '.phpa). By crafting the c parameter, itas possible to access arbitrary files on the device: wget 'http://victim.ip.address/?c=../../../../../etc/passwd%00' The %00 trick is a known issue, and is addressed in a later PHP update. For more information, please see SN-01. It is recommended that the code be refactored to not require passing user supplied input to the include() function. Alternatively, a strict whitelist approach of known modules may be used instead. -------------------------------------------- SN-03: Unauthenticated remote code execution -------------------------------------------- Severity: Critical A variety of functionality is implemented via insecure string concatenation then passed to underlying exec() functions: For example, in card_scan_decoder.php 16 $No = $_GET['No']; 17 $door = $_GET['door']; 18 19 $result = array(); 20 21 $db = new PDO('sqlite:/tmp/SpiderDB/Spider.db'); 27 28 if ($No < 1) 29 { 30 $DelTemp = $db->prepare("DELETE FROM CardRawData"); 31 $DelTemp->execute(); 32 33 exec("/spider/sicu/spider-cgi getrawdata ".$door." on"); 34 } This vulnerability can be exploited by: wget 'http://victim.ip.address/card_scan_decoder.php?No=0&door=$(sleep 3)a This is just an example of the pattern of insecurely creating strings to be executed, and not an exhaustive listing. It is recommended that injection-proof API's are used instead of error-prone string concatenation, or whitelist / blacklist being used (for example, escapeshellcmd). However, it appears as if the closest option in PHP is http://php.net/manual/en/function.pcntl-exec.php which requires the user to perform a lot more work to avoid shooting themselves in the foot (such as forking the process first). --------------------------------- SN-04: Hardcoded root credentials --------------------------------- Severity: Critical There are 3 password fingerprints in /etc/passwd root:$1$VVtYRWvv$gyIQsOnvSv53KQwzEfZpJ0:0:100:root:/root:/bin/sh e3user:$1$vR6H2PUd$52r03jiYrM6m5Bff03yT0/:1000:1000:Linux User,,,:/home/e3user:/bin/sh lighttpd:$1$vqbixaUx$id5O6Pnoi5/fXQzE484CP1:1001:1000:Linux User,,,:/home/lighttpd:/bin/sh The plaintext root password can be found in /spider/sicu binaries. The root password may be used for the ftp or telnet service on the device. From our observation, it appears as if FTP is running by default, along with the ability to login as root via FTP. The hardcoded root credentials are used by binaries on the system to run commands as root. It is currently unknown what the purpose of the e3user and lighttpd hardcoded passwords are. For example, the root password is used in a variety of ways in the following format: echo %s | su -c 'mkdir -p %s >& /tmp/message' echo %s | su -c 'chown %s %s >& /tmp/message' Where %s is replaced at run time with the cleartext root password before being passed to the system() function. It is recommended that hardcoded credentials be removed, and instead replaced with a more suitable mechanism. For example; sudo may be suitable, combined with the NOPASSWD directive. FTP access should be replaced with a more secure transfer mechanism (such as SSH FTP, or SCP), and authentication should be managed by a user (preferably via SSH public keys). ------------------------------------------ SN-05: Passwords stored in plaintext ------------------------------------------ Severity: High A variety of credentials (for example, used for accessing the web front end, or other devices part of the installation) are stored unencrypted on the device in /tmp/SpiderDB/Spider.db: sqlite> SELECT Name,Password FROM WebUser; admin|ExamplePlaintextPassword sqlite> SELECT Name,ID,Password FROM Controller; Server|username|AnotherPlaintextPassword It is recommended that where passwords must be stored, that they are suitably cryptographically hashed using an appropriate standard (for more information, please see https://password-hashing.net). Author ====== The vulnerabilities were discovered by Andrew Griffiths from Google Security Team. Timeline ======== 2016/12/06 - Contacted sicunet.com domain registrar, and sales@sicunet.com for a point of contact to report security issues. 2016/12/08 - Pinged earlier email for a point of contact, additionally included tech@sicunet.com on an email. 2016/12/08 - Report sent to Ike Huh, CEO. 2016/12/12 - Mentioned that reviewing spider-api would be worthwhile as it listens on port 7000, and strings suggests that there may be command injection / other vulnerabilities. No reply. 2017/01/17 - Asked point of contact if they had any questions about the advisory sent earlier. No reply. 2017/01/24 - Pinged vendor again, asked about resellers who may be able to make recommendations about restricting network access to the devices from the internet. 2017/01/30 - No contact from vendor. 2017/02/24 - Asked vendor if the affected users can expect patches. No reply. 2017/03/01 - Sent an email to the vendor, reminding them disclosure is coming up soon. 2017/03/08 - 90 day disclosure deadline. # Iranian Exploit DataBase = http://IeDb.Ir [2017-03-13]